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Big data support logistics supply chain financial development

Date: 2019-06-18
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Supply chain finance has become a hot topic in supply chain research. In the 'Guidance on Actively Promoting Supply Chain Innovation and Application'(hereinafter referred to as 'Guidance') of the General Office of the State Council, one of the six key tasks is 'actively and steadily developing supply chain finance'; In the 'Notice on the Implementation of Supply Chain Innovation and Application Pilot'(hereinafter referred to as the 'Notice') formulated by the Ministry of Commerce and other eight departments, one of the six key tasks of the pilot cities was to 'standardize the development of the physical economy of supply chain financial services.' One of the five key tasks of the pilot enterprise is to 'standardize the development of supply chain financial services.' The financial goal of supply chain is to provide safe access to the real economy, to serve the real economy, to provide low-cost, efficient and rapid financial services for eligible MSMEs, and to effectively prevent financial risks in the supply chain.

The physical economy that needs supply chain financial support has a wide range of coverage. In the Guidance and Notice, it is concentrated in agriculture, industry and circulation industry and even the financial industry itself. However, in fact, the author believes that the logistics industry has the most urgent need for supply chain finance.

In the 40 years of reform and opening up, the industry represented by 'Made in China' has been better integrated into the global supply chain system, and has gradually gained competitive advantages in the global market in the middle and low end manufacturing industries with organizational advantages and cost advantages. However, it has also been valued and defended by manufacturing countries such as the United States, Europe, Japan and South Korea.

For the circulation industry, although the competitiveness of traditional trade channels is not strong, the Internet e-commerce platform that was born has a strong global competitiveness and has been favored by global capital.

The logistics industry that connects production with consumption and supports business activities lacks capital support seriously, and the logistics supply chain needs the support of supply chain finance.

The first is the extremely low concentration of the logistics industry. The industry concentration in the top 10 of the express transport industry, which accounts for as much as 75 % of the transportation market, is only 2.9 %, while the industrial concentration of road freight is only 1.2 %. The vast majority of logistics enterprises belong to small and micro enterprises. It is more difficult to obtain financing from financial institutions due to such characteristics as small number of fixed assets, limited availability of collateral, high risk of operation, low credit and difficulty in obtaining credit.

Secondly, most MSM logistics enterprises generally have the problem of tight capital chain. In particular, the upstream mortgage is serious, the accounting period is getting longer and longer, and the downstream is generally in need of immediate payment or even advance payment, which further aggravates the degree of tension in the capital chain and seriously restricts the small and medium-sized logistics enterprises from doing a big job.

The lack of financial support makes it difficult to increase the concentration of the industry, which directly leads to the 'small dispersion difference' in the logistics industry, the chaotic price system and the phenomenon of overloading, and leads to the overall weakness of the supply chain in the logistics industry, which in turn affects the distribution supply chain and manufacturing supply chain. Healthy development.

Therefore, the effectiveness of supply chain finance in logistics industry will determine the effectiveness of innovation and application of supply chain in China. Professor Mading·kelisiduofu of Oxford University asserts that 'the competition in the 21st century is the competition between the supply chain and the supply chain. '

At the same time, at the same time, when the economy is in a new normal and the manufacturing industry is contained, trade-driven consumption has become a key task for the country's economic development. As a result, the logistics industry's reduced efficiency as a guarantee for manufacturing and trade circulation has naturally evolved into the current national strategy. However, the small and medium-sized logistics enterprises that need working capital most in the logistics industry are the most difficult to obtain working capital financing. The phenomenon of difficult financing is far more serious than manufacturing enterprises and circulation enterprises.

Although the state has issued policies to support the financial support of small and medium-sized private enterprises for many years, it has even established special financial institutions and credit systems for small and medium-sized private enterprises. However, under the circumstances of a highly uncertain market and a serious credit deficit for small and medium-sized private logistics enterprises, the policy dividend of forcing financial institutions to reduce the cost of financing and increase the risk of financing can not be sustained in a truly perfect market. The specific executor of the financial institution will also be greatly discounted when it lands; In addition, it distorts the normal operation of the market's survival mechanism, but it is not conducive to the healthy and continuous growth of small and medium-sized private logistics enterprises that meet market demand, have high credit and core competitiveness.

Therefore, the financial, asset and service enterprises involved in supply chain finance, such as commercial banks, trusts, funds, insurance, and supply chain core enterprises, are struggling in the upstream and downstream game of wind control in the entire supply chain. Due to the separation of liability rights often lead to duplicate pledge, empty Bill pledge and excessive damage of collateral. Supply chain finance involves the supply side, often because of the high loss cost of wind control and the high prevention cost of excessive wind control, so that supply chain finance only stays on the concept.

Supply chain finance is different from previous logistics finance. The existing traditional logistics such as warehouse receipt pledge financing, contract pledge financing, and credit financing have effectively used the movable property rights of small and medium-sized logistics enterprises to carry out proportional financing or leveraged financing, but often because the liability rights are not uniform, the collateral is excessive. Damage; The supply chain around the core enterprises covering the upper and lower reaches of SMEs, Jinrongmoshi, also has commercial draft / Bank draft transfer scene is limited and difficult, core enterprises are difficult to self-certification credit and other issues, making financial wind control Yanhe wind control costs too high. Can not reach the supply chain financial services real economy, high efficiency and low prices to promote the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises and can control the comprehensive goal of financial risk.

How to make commercial banks, factoring enterprises and other financial enterprises low-cost, efficient to confirm the core enterprise's own credit? How to make the '1 + N + X' mode of supply chain finance core enterprises precisely confirm the authenticity of the movable property rights and credit pledges covering the upstream, downstream micro and small enterprises? How to form an industrial closed supply chain environment led by supply chain finance? Big data and the Internet of things have become the most powerful technological support for supply chain finance.

Third party big data and cloud services that can be shared and protected can form a credit platform that penetrates real information across the entire supply chain; The Internet of Things that supports the interconnection of all things in the closed-loop supply chain can accurately control the real-time monitoring and automatic matching of full-chain resources; The closed-loop of funds based on artificial intelligence can realize the function of machine credit and intelligent wind control in low cost and high efficiency.

Internet e-commerce enterprises, whether B2B or B2C, can rely on the platform's real trading flow to form an enterprise and individual credit evaluation system centered on e-commerce, which has achieved the financial innovation of the supply chain of e-commerce logistics companies. However, its impact on more and more small and medium-sized logistics enterprises has little impact.

Therefore, entrepreneurs with various types of credit verification on the capital, asset, and service sides of the e-commerce platform need to rely more on large data models that do not directly involve the benefits of investment companies to do credit and wind control for each link of the strong supply chain. ability.

In 2019, with the commercialization of 5G, the country will achieve faster, more devices and more real-time communication connections, while better supporting stronger data accumulation, data services, and data application experience capabilities; In particular, the edge calculation of MEC, which is in line with the 5G technology, can also lead to the development of high-quality data, high security and high interaction.

Using big data and cloud service technology to enable supply chain finance and integrate supply chain third-party support data and service functions will make logistics industry supply chain finance better serve supply chain innovation and application.

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